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Allergies often start in childhood and seasonal allergies start after 2 years and continue throughout life. Although there is no cure, with proper care they can usually be kept under control. Allergies are caused by the body’s reaction to substances called “allergens,” which trigger the immune system to react to harmless substances as though they were attacking the body.

When to Suspect an Allergy

Some allergies are easy to identify by the pattern of symptoms that follows exposure to a particular substance. But others are subtler, and may masquerade as other conditions. Here are some common clues that could lead you to suspect your child may have an allergy:

1)Repeated or chronic cold-like symptoms that last more than a week or two, or that develop at about the same time every year. These could include:

  • Runny nose
  • Nasal stuffiness
  • Sneezing
  • Throat clearing
  • Nose rubbing
  • Sniffling
  • Snorting
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy, runny eyes

2)Itching or tingling sensations in the mouth and throat. Itchiness is not usually a complaint with a cold, but it is the hallmark of an allergy problem.

3)Coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and other respiratory symptoms.

4)Recurrent red, itchy, dry, sometime scaly rashes in the creases of the skin, wrists, and ankles also may indicate an allergy.

Allergies, asthma, and eczema often go together. Presently, we have no “cure” for allergies, but we do have many effective treatments.

Common Allergens in Home and School

In the fall and winter, many indoor allergens cause problems for children because they are inside of home and school for longer periods.

  • Dust: contains dust mites and finely ground particles from other allergens, such as pollen, mold, and animal dander
  • Fungi: including molds too small to be seen with the naked eye
  • Furry animals: cats, dogs, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, and other pets
  • Clothing and toys: (typically only those)  made, trimmed, or stuffed with animal hair
  • Latex: household and school articles, such as rubber gloves, toys, balloons; elastic in socks, underwear, and other clothing; airborne particles
  • Bacterial enzymes: used to manufacture enzyme bleaches and cleaning products
  • Certain foods
  • Ragweed, a plant with yellow tuft of flowers that blooms in August and through the first frost

Controlling Allergy Symptoms

  • It’s helpful to use air conditioners, where possible, to reduce exposure to pollen in both your home and your car.
  • Molds are present in the spring and late summer, particularly around areas of decaying vegetation. Children with mold allergies should avoid playing in piles of dead leaves in the fall.
  • Dust mites congregate in places where food for them (e.g , flakes of human skin) is plentiful. That means they are most commonly found in upholstered furniture, bedding, and rugs.
  • Padded furnishings, such as mattresses, box springs, pillows, and cushions should be encased in allergen-proof, zip-up covers, which are available through catalogs and specialized retailers.
  • Wash linens weekly, and other bedding such as blankets, every 2 to 3 weeks in hot water to kill the dust mite, and dry on high heat if possible.
  • Pillows should be replaced every 2 to 3 years.
  • Keep windows closed in your child’s bedroom, avoid carpets if possible, and have them shower before bed so there bed can be a clean, allergy free space. (if you can’t bathe them daily, change the pillowcase each night).
  • Removing Stuffed animals, knick knacks and other items in the bedroom that can trap dust can also help.

If these control measures do not work, please call us as there are many very effective medications that we can prescribe to help manage allergy symptoms.

When should my child see an allergist? This is an excellent question. If your child ever has a life-threatening reaction to a food or bee sting, we will refer you promptly. For “regular” allergy symptoms, we refer you if the medications we are using are ineffective or you feel your child is getting worse.

For further information, you may schedule an appointment with us, or refer to our Helpful Websites tab.


Hello patients, families, and friends. Welcome to our monthly blog at RHP! We are excited to share timely, topical, relevant and reliable medical information about once per month with you.

There are so many pressing items right now with school shootings weighing heavily on my mind, Fortnight taking over my basement, and obesity an ongoing health crisis. Despite these issues, I thought I would start with LYME disease, as it is Tick Bite season and affects all of us in Connecticut!  There is also a lot of FALSE information on the internet about ticks and Lyme Disease.

How do people get Lyme Disease?  Deer ticks carry the infectious agent (called a spirochete) that causes Lyme Disease.  Deer ticks are very small, dark brown or black, and the size of a “period” at the end of a sentence. A tick must be embedded in the skin for at least  24 hours (many authorities believe > 48 hours) to potentially cause “Lyme disease.” The bite is often painless and, in 50% of patients with Lyme, people  are unaware of ever having been bitten. In contrast, dog or wood ticks are quite large (the size of a watermelon seed) and DO NOT cause Lyme.

What is Lyme Disease?  Lyme disease is an infection caused by a spirochete (similar to a bacteria)that lives in the belly of an infected deer tick. Deer  ticks live in forests, grassy wooded areas, marshy areas near rivers, lakes, oceans. However, you can also be bit in your own backyard! Typically, bites occur from late spring to early fall.

What are the Stages of Lyme Disease?  Lyme Disease is categorized into three different stages of infection based on how long the spirochete has been in the body.

Stage 1: Occurs 1-30 days after a bite. A “bulls- eye” rash is a pink, flat rash with a bulls-eye appearance (concentric rings, like the “Target” store logo) that is more than 2 inches in diameter (the size of a baseball or orange). The medical term for this rash is “erythema migrans.”  The rash is not painful or itchy. It can last for a few days to a few weeks. It may also grow over a few days, but take a picture of it to show us! Some kids will have multiple bulls-eyes. Sometimes kids will get a fever, malaise, fatigue, and feel almost like the “flu” (though  no vomiting or cough) for 1 week. Any fever (>101) for more than 7 days in the summer, makes us think about Lyme. If there is not a bulls-eye rash but your child has a fever we may do a blood test to check for Lyme.

Stage 2: May occur 2-12 weeks after the bite. Some children may get a severe  headache with this stage, which is certainly a reason to call us at the office.  Others can have facial weakness (Bell’s Palsy). Rarely children can get Lyme meningitis (infection of the tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

Stage 3: Typically this stage occurs 6 weeks to 2 years after the bite.  This is VERY RARE, contrary to what the internet often reports. We mostly see a single joint arthritis, where the affected joint is not only painful but red and swollen. Most often we see a very swollen knee with no history of injury.

How to handle finding a tick on you or your child:

If your child has a tick that is crawling on the skin but can be easily brushed off (is not yet attached firmly to the skin), the there is no need to worry about Lyme Disease.  The tick cannot transmit the spirochete that causes Lyme Disease if it is not firmly attached to the skin.

What to do if your child has a tick that is firmly attached (has “bitten” him or her)

  1. Rub a cotton ball on a bar of soap and then rub it counter clockwise for 60 seconds on the tick and it should “unscrew” and come off on the cotton swab.

  2. If that doesn’t work, use a tweezers, get close to the skin and pull straight up. Even if a small part of the head remains, that is okay because the “Lyme” is in the belly of the tick.

  3. Wash the area with soap and water and apply bacitracin.

  4. It is normal to have a red swollen bump that is 1-2 cm in size at the site where the tick was attached.  This may itch and be present for several days similar to a bug bite. This is just irritation from being bitten and is not the classic Lyme Disease rash.  (See above for a description of the characteristic rash.)

When do we treat for Lyme Disease?

  1. We don’t treat every tick bite! It is simply not necessary.  If the tick has been on for more than 24-48 hours we ask you to observe for the rash or flu like symptoms for the next 4 weeks and call if they develop.

  2. If you see a possible Lyme or “bulls-eye” rash, call and we will see your child.

  3. If your child has “flu like” symptoms or a fever for more than 3-4 days, please call the office.

  4. If your child develops a facial palsy - a crooked smile, or a very swollen joint, please call us.

  5. We use common antibiotics and thankfully they are almost always effective at CURINGLyme Disease.

Miscellaneous Information:

  1. The state of Connecticut does not test ticks for Lyme but some towns do and there are private laboratories that will do this for you.  We do not recommend testing the tick. If the tick does carry the spirochete that causes “Lyme Disease”, this does not necessarily mean that it was able to transmit it to your child.  Therefore, we follow the above treatment guidelines regardless of what testing the tick shows. DEET containing products (10-30%) are the best defense as well as long pants, tucking socks into pants and wearing long sleeves, especially when hiking or out in tall grass. Be sure to do a tick check each night as the ticks are small, black (the size of a period at the end of a sentence) and easy to spot on most children. Short of preventing bites, getting ticks off within 24 hours is one of the best ways to prevent your child from being infected.  (After bath or before bed are great times to check!) There is also a chemical called permethrin that can be used to treat clothing and has shown great efficacy at repelling ticks. For those that love to camp or hike, this could be a good way to help prevent infection.

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E-Cigarettes and Vaping: What Parents Need to Know

E-cigarettes have become very popular. These devices (also called e-cigs, vape pens, e-hookah, e-cigars, mechanical mods, and pod systems) are not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports actions to prevent children and youth from using or being exposed to the vapor from e-cigarettes. This fact sheet offers facts and tips for parents to help address e-cigarette use and exposure.


Health Harms

  • The solution and vapor from e-cigarettes contain harmful chemicals, some of which cause cancer
  • The nicotine in e-cigarettes is addictive and can harm brain development
  • E-cigarettes are not recommended as a way to quit smoking
  • In some cases, e-cigarettes have exploded, causing burns or fires
  • Exposure to secondhand vapor from e-cigarettes is harmful to growing lungs
  • Long-term health effects on users and bystanders are still unknown
  • E-cigarettes can be used to smoke or “vape” marijuana, herbs, waxes, and oils

Dangers to Youth

  • E-cigarettes are the most commonly-used tobacco product among teens: in 2018, over 20% of high school students reported having used e-cigarettes in the last 30 days
  • Youth are uniquely vulnerable to the nicotine in e-cigarettes because their brains are still developing
  • Youth who use e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke traditional cigarettes in the future
  • Children are exposed to e-cigarette advertising in the media, online, and in magazines and billboards
  • E-cigarettes appeal to children because they come in fun flavors like fruit, bubble-gum and candy
  • Although it is illegal for e-cigarettes to be sold to youth under age 18, they can be ordered online

Risk of Poisoning

  • E-cigarette solutions can poison children and adults through swallowing or skin contact
  • A young child can be killed by very small amounts of nicotine: less than half a teaspoon. Because of this, liquid nicotine is required to be sold in childproof packaging
  • Symptoms of nicotine poisoning include sweating, dizziness, vomiting, and increased heart rate.
  • Calls to poison control centers related to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in the last 5 years
  • If exposure to liquid nicotine occurs, call the local poison center at 1-800-222-1222

Recommendations for Parents

  • The best way to protect your children is to never smoke or vape in the house, in the car, or in places that children spend time. Talk with your doctor about ways to help you quit tobacco products
  • Talk to your children about the dangers of e-cigarettes, and make sure you can identify them
  • If you are an e-cigarette user, always keep e-cigarettes and liquid nicotine locked and out of the reach of children. Protect your skin if handling e-liquid

For more information about these devices, including statistics and citations, please visit

Visit the AAP Richmond Center online at: www.richmondcenter.org